Loracarbef is an oral, synthetic beta-lactam antibiotic of the carbacephem class. Chemically, carbacephems differ from cephalosporin-class antibiotics in the dihydrothiazine ring where a methylene group has been substituted for a sulfur atom. Loracarbef has a spectrum of activity similar to that of the second generation cephalosporins. It is structurally identical to cefaclor except for a sulfur atom that has been replaced by a methylene group. This change gives greater chemical stability in solution and allows storage at room temperature. Loracarbef, like all b-lactams and cephalosporins, inhibits penicillin binding proteins, enzymes that create the cross-linkage of the peptidoglycan polymer. This binding leads to interference with the formation and remodeling of the cell wall structure.
Loracarbef is considered a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic. The advantages of cephalosporin antibiotics include a broad range of activity, a safe record in children with almost no dose-related toxicity, and the lack of need to monitor levels. Adverse reactions are rare and consist primarily of hypersensitivity reactions with urticaria, nonspecific rash, and pruritus. Loracarbef can be used to treat a large number of bacterial infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including upper respiratory tract bacterial infections, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, pharyntitis and tonsillitis, skin absceses, urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis caused by E. coli, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, S. saprphyticus, S. penumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.
There is no evidence of metabolism in humans.
Adverse effects include diarrhea, nausea, stomach upset, vomiting, headache, dizziness, rash, bone marrow depression.