Allosteric interactions between central benzodiazepine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors potentiate the effects of GABA. As GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, this results in increased inhibition of the ascending reticular activating system. Benzodiazepines, in this way, block the cortical and limbic arousal that occurs following stimulation of the reticular pathways.
Clonazepam, a benzodiazepine, is used primarily as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of absence seizures, petit mal variant seizures (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome), akinetic and myoclonic seizures, and nocturnal myoclonus.
Hepatic (cytochrome P450, including CYP3A). Biotransformation occurs mainly by reduction of the 7-nitro group to the 4-amino derivative. This derivative can be acetylated, hydroxylated, and glucuronidated.
Somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes