Buprenorphine's analgesic effect is due to partial agonist activity at mu-opioid receptors. Buprenorphine is also a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. The partial agonist activity means that opioid receptor antagonists (e.g., an antidote such as naloxone) only partially reverse the effects of buprenorphine. The binding to the mu and kappa receptors results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
Buprenorphine is a synthetic opioid analgesic and thebaine derivative, with a longer duration of action than morphine. Buprenorphine interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. In clinical settings, buprenorphine exerts its principal pharmacologic effects on the central nervous system. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Buprenorphine may increase the patient's tolerance for pain and decrease the perception of suffering, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Buprenorphine depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex, and constricts the pupils.
Hepatic. Buprenorphine undergoes both N-dealkylation to norbuprenorphine and glucuronidation. The N-dealkylation pathway is mediated by cytochrome P-450 3A4 isozyme. Norbuprenorphine, an active metabolite, can further undergo glucuronidation.
Manifestations of acute overdose include pinpoint pupils, sedation, hypotension, respiratory depression and death.