Anakinra binds competitively to the Interleukin-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI), thereby inhibiting the action of elevated levels IL-1 which normally can lead to cartilage degradation and bone resorption.
Used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Anakinra blocks the biologic activity of IL-1 by competitively inhibiting IL-1 binding to the interleukin-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI), which is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and organs. IL-1 production is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli and mediates various physiologic responses including inflammatory and immunological responses. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have elevated levels of IL-1. The levels of the naturally occurring IL-1Ra in synovium and synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are not sufficient to compete with the elevated amount of locally produced IL-1. Increasing the levels of IL-1Ra by artificial means reduces the negative effects (cartilage degradation, bone resorption) of IL-1.
Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5%) are injection site reaction, worsening of rheumatoid arthritis, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, nausea, diarrhea, sinusitis, arthralgia, flu like-symptoms, and abdominal pain when anakinra is used in RA patients. In NOMID patients, the most common AEs during the first 6 months of treatment (incidence >10%) are injection site reaction, headache, vomiting, arthralgia, pyrexia, and nasopharyngitis.