Apomorphine HCl CAS: 41372-20-7
Apomorphine HCl is a versatile API commonly associated with treating Parkinson’s disease. When those who suffer from Parkinson’s have difficulty walking or speaking, they can take apomorphine as a means to gain control over their movements. It can’t prevent the episodes, but it can make it easier to handle the symptoms once they appear. This medication works to stimulate the D2 and D1 receptors in the brain, or those that produce dopamine. By mimicking the effects of dopamine, patients with Parkinson’s can limit or reduce the severity of their worst symptoms.
History and Mechanisms
Apomorphine was first synthesized in 1845 after combining morphine and sulphuric acid. Later versions opted for hydrochloric acid rather than sulphuric, which resulted in a closer iteration of the current API. Initially, it was used to help people vomit and to reduce nervous or compulsive tics in farm animals. It reduced unnecessary licking, gnawing, or rocking behavior in animals in proper doses, but resulted in convulsions and even death in higher concentrations. Properly used, it seems to relax the brain and the body so it can function the way it was meant to.
A Colorful Past
Apomorphine has been used far longer than its formal existence, including as an aphrodisiac for those who took it. Formal studies also conclude that apomorphine may be a viable way to treat erectile dysfunction. This medication has also been purported to potentially cut cravings for alcohol, but the results for this claim are mixed at best. As of now, apomorphine has been formalized in its use. It’s given to patients with specific instructions about where and how to use it. Patients have to keep a record of their activity, and monitor their skin for signs of distress (e.g., rash, bruising, etc.) to ensure they only use healthy injection sites.
Recommendations for Use
Apomorphine can be injected under the skin of the upper leg, upper arm, or stomach as opposed to directly into a vein. Patients will also take anti-nausea medication several days before taking apomorphine to reduce the initial side effects. They may need it to take the anti-nausea medication for up to two months after discontinuing apomorphine injections. It’s standard to start patients out on a low dose of the API, only increasing it as the prescriber confirms how the body is reacting to the apomorphine. Doctors will typically wait at least a few days before adjusting the dose.
Accessories and Accouterments
Patients will receive this API in a glass cartridge and administer it with an injector pen. This pen should be marked with milligrams, so there’s no confusion about how much to take. Patients may need to buy the needles separately, depending on the type of pen they receive and the facility they receive the medication from. Each injection requires a new and sterile needle that will need to be discarded in a puncture-proof container after use. Patients and their caregivers will need to be trained on how to use the equipment to give the injections.
As mentioned, the most common side effect is nausea and vomiting, but patients may also experience constipation, headache, weakness, or joint pain. They may become flushed or have difficulty or pain upon urination. While it’s uncommon, some people may also develop more serious symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, or swelling in their extremities. They may fall down, experience an increased heart rate, or even hallucinate after use. Those who experience these side effects should contact a doctor right away for additional treatment.
LGM Pharma is an innovation-driven API company, involved in the distribution of quality cGMP pharma ingredients to leading pharmaceutical companies. We specialize in streamlining the API supply chain management throughout all development and commercial stages while providing complete technical capabilities, expert regulatory support as well as other value-added services.