Anidulafungin CAS No: 166663-25-8
Anidulafungin is an antifungal API used to combat general yeast infections found in the blood, stomach, or esophagus and some varieties of Aspergillus. As an echinocandin, it inhibits the growth of fungal cell walls which results in either fungal cell instability or death. Echinocandins are unique in that they affect the wall of the cell as opposed to the membrane. Anidulafungin is deadly to Candida and Saccharomyces but will typically only inhibit the growth of Aspergillus.
Inhibition of Glucan Synthase
The drug begins as echinocandin B before losing its linoleoyl side chain. Once this occurs, a bacterium is added before undergoing several additional synthetic steps. The enzyme glucan synthase is only found in fungal cells, which means Anidulafungin can be taken without severe risk to the patient (with a few notable exceptions.) In fact, doctors generally will not alter their dosage recommendations based on a patient’s age or health (including renal health) because the metabolism process occurs via hydrolysis. Even in the case of accidental overdose by those in clinical trials, there were no adverse effects. Anidulafungin can also be safely taken with other drugs as a part of a comprehensive treatment plan.
Studies and Reactions
The body of research done on Anidulafungin is not as comprehensive as other APIs that may have been on the market for longer. The drug was approved by the FDA in February 2006 and it performed admirably, and in some cases better than other antifungal agents, such as Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. Because this API is able to travel through the placenta, Anidulafungin should be given with caution to pregnant women. The API is typically administered via an injection and will degrade in the human body until it is no longer active with about a third of it being excreted. Only 10% of the drug remains unchanged upon exit from the body.
Anidulafungin and Children
Anidulafungin is not approved for use with pediatric patients, but there are few studies to either confirm or deny this assessment. In one study completed in 2006, children with Neutropenia were given the API to fight off the increased chances of a fungal infection. Researchers found that the API was well tolerated if administered in the right dosages. Ultimately, this could lead to the additional use of echinocandins to treat childhood diseases that leave the body open to infection. While side effects tended to be mild in children, there were some that had severe enough reactions at higher dosages to merit concern. Additional research is necessary to clarify the proper dosages amongst children two and up.
Side Effects and Warnings
A select few patients saw hepatic side effects when using Anidulafungin, even though the chances of an occurrence are extremely rare. General side effects included flushing, headache, nausea, and dizziness. If patients experience trouble breathing, severe nausea, or confusion, they should stop taking the API immediately. Because many of the more severe side effects are not reported during clinical trials, it’s difficult to state causation or frequency. However, it is reported that the vast majority of patients can take this API without experiencing any adverse effects.
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