Amphotericin B: CAS No: 1397-89-3
Amphotericin B is an API used to treat a number of fungal infections. This pharmaceutical ingredient is aggressive when interacting with the fungus which is why it’s generally used for serious cases only. However, it’s also proven itself to be one of the most effective ways to stop the spread of a fungus in the body — regardless of where the fungus begins or ends. Approved by the FDA in 1997, it’s been named as an essential component of any health system by the World Health Organization.
How It Works
This API can either be used to hinder the growth of fungus or to kill off the fungus altogether. It’s processed entirely by the kidneys and requires close medical supervision during the course of treatment. The results of the ingredient are heavily dependent on the type of fungus as well as the extent to which the fungus has spread throughout the body. Amphotericin B works to halt the production of ergosterol by binding to the membrane. This interference causes the fungus cells to rupture and eventually die. The best way to administer the drug is typically via injectable form but it can be delivered as well in oral and topical dosage forms.
What It Treats
The side effects (e.g., fever, chills, weight loss, and nausea) of Amphotericin B can be somewhat severe for the immunocompromised people who take the drug, so it’s typically only prescribed for exceptionally destructive fungal infections such as Leishmaniasis. This fungal infection starts with parasites and ends with skin ulcers and potential organ failure. While Amphotericin B is often in high demand in the developing world where clean lodging and water are difficult to find, it’s equally found at the most advanced hospitals around the globe.
This API is aggressive with a number of common forms of fungus, including the more severe cases of Candida (diaper rash, nail fungus, jock itch, etc.) and cryptococcosis (a potentially fatal disease for HIV patients.) Amphotericin B has been praised by researchers as being a relatively economical way to effectively treat a variety of nasty infections. However, it is not without its fair share of warnings when it comes to both side effects and preferred treatment options. For example, the non-albicans Candida (NAC) species of fungus appears to be developing resistance to common anti-fungal medications such as Amphotericin B.
What We Know
In a study conducted by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine in 2016, researchers found that the incidence of isolated NAC in 100 treated infected patients was higher than those of the Albicans fungus (63.3% vs. 36.7%) with increasing resistance to Amphotericin B. An additional report from the Drug Resistance Update journal in 1999 noted that the Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii strains, in particular, were demonstrating the most resistance to Amphotericin B. While medical professionals will typically opt for the parenteral version of the drug due to its better absorption qualities, there is also an oral form of the drug commercially available in several markets for patients who are unable to receive an injection.
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